Drug addiction is a disease that is accompanied by a pathological craving for the consumption of narcotic substances. Narcotic drugs or substances are those that have the specific ability to influence the central nervous system. Not much is known regarding how exactly addiction develops and what mechanisms lay in the formation of drug dependence. The purpose of the current paper is to study the causes and risk factors of drug addiction.
A drug is a dangerous and harmful substance that causes irreversible processes in the body and leads to the development of psychic and physical dependence. It can cause a state of joyful intoxication and, if taken systematically, lead to a severe disease that is called drug addiction. Drug addiction is the emergence of the need to systematically take substances that change the psychic regulation of the body. Depressants are drugs designed to inhibit the normal functioning of the brain. For this reason, they are also called sedatives. Stimulants include a group of psychotropic drugs that enhance mental and physical performance, improve the ability to perceive external stimuli, improve mood, relieve fatigue, and temporarily reduce the need for sleep. The group of opioids includes narcotic analgesics, which have a pronounced ability to reduce or eliminate the feeling of pain. According to the book Drug Abuse and Addiction in Medical Illness, the drug class of opiods comprises many substances. Some of these are known for their illegal use, such as heroin. Cannabinoids are a group of certain chemical compounds of natural or chemical origin. Hallucinogens are substances that distort the perception of the real world. Under the action of this group of substances, light signals, smell, taste, and the estimation of space and time are distorted. Inhalants are toxic substances that are inhaled through the nose or mouth. Over the counter drugs are substances that are sold without the prescription of the doctor.
Motivations to Use Drugs
There are a number of specific reasons that make people use drugs. More frequently, people start using drugs during adolescence because this time is associated with psychological and physiological changes. The main cause of drug usage among teenagers is the lack of love and attention. Experiments over consciousness may be another motivation. Such experiments may be an attempt to extend consciousness beyond rational. A sense of dissatisfaction is considered an important motivation for adult drug addicts as well. People begin to seek solace with different chemicals that help them escape into the world of illusions, forget about the unpleasant reality, and get relaxed at least for a certain period. Other reasons include serious internal conflicts, the lack of motivation, socialization problems, and curiosity.
A List of Narcotic Drugs
All the substances that effect human consciousness can be divided into drugs and psychotropic substances. The following is the list of narcotic drugs:
1. Opiates – morphine, heroin, codeine;
2. Amphetamines – amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine.
4. Cocaine group;
8. Fentanyl-related derivatives – fentanyl, alpha-Methylfentanyl;
The following is the list of psychotropic substances:
1. Barbiturates – barbital, barbital sodium, phenobarbital;
2. Benzodiazepines – bromazepam;
3. Tricyclic antidepressants – amitriptyline, imipramine;
4. Tricyclic antidepressants – maprotiline, mirtazapine;
5. Phenothiazines – chlorpromazine;
6. Thioxanthene derivatives – chlorprothixene;
7. Antihistamines – pheniramine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine;
8. Sodium hydroxybutyrate;
11. Other substances – analgin, paracetamol, nicotine, cotinine, quinine.
Risk Factors of Addiction
From the point of view of psychology, there are certain types of thinking and behavior inherent in people. These behaviors increase the chances of starting to use drugs. The first type of such behaviors is increased excitability. This trait usually appears in early childhood. People with this trait are characterized by bursts of aggression and emotional volatility that cannot be controlled. Such children are easily offended. Their mood constantly changes. In addition, they are inconsistent since they often follow their emotions. These young people are not able to critically evaluate whether they associate with good or bad companies. Therefore, they may fall under the influence of bad people.
The second type of people that are susceptible to drugs are persons without stable interests. They are not mentally stable and have primitive thinking. Such people have no will. Their mind is arranged in such a way that regular thinking for them does not work. They constantly seek for new experiences and pleasure, avoiding daily work. Consequently, the pursuit of strong impressions sometimes brings people of this type to drug addiction.
The third type of individuals inclined to drug usage are people with epileptoid traits. People of this type are self-centered and sullen. In addition, they have a tendency to demonstrate sudden and unreasonable outbursts of anger. Self-centeredness becomes a serious obstacle in building relationships with other people for such persons. To overcome such a surly nature, people can take drugs.
Drug addiction is an extremely serious problem nowadays. It is a disease that is difficult to treat. There are many groups of substances that can cause drug addiction. Besides, there are certain types of people who are more susceptible to addiction. I consider that people with epileptoid traits experience addiction more often. Moreover, in my opinion, lack of love and attention may frequently motivate people to use drugs. However, curiosity, and a desire to experiment over one’s consciousness may cause addiction in certain cases as well.
About the author: Jennifer Cooper is a bachelor in English philology and literature at Michigan University. Jennifer is currently working as one of the best writers at the https://exclusivepapers.net/ She also studies feminine psychology